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Using Composer

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is a tool for managing dependencies on the project level, a project being your site or web application. It has become the de facto dependency management tool for PHP. Composer allows PHP developers to easily build standalone distributable libraries that can be shared and integrated by others. This is possible in part by the PHP Framework Interoperability Group (FIG) and PSR-4 for autoloading of class files.

If you’ve ever used Drush Make to download Drupal modules and themes, then all of this sounds familiar. You can think of Composer as the more advanced Drush Make that works for all PHP projects and packages. Compared to Drush Make, Composer has the benefit of being able to recursively resolve dependencies (downloading the dependencies of each dependency) and being able to detect conflicts.

Why does Commerce need it?

Modern applications such as Drupal 8 consist of many classes, so it would be impractical and costly to manually include each one. Instead, the application includes one special class, called the autoloader which then automatically includes other classes when they are first needed. When Composer runs, it regenerates the autoloader, giving it the locations of the newly downloaded dependencies.

Commerce utilizes various AmoonyFashion Womens Open Toe Spikes Stilettos Soft Material Assorted Color Buckle Sandals Apricot AvzrbCrh
. Without Composer and the generated class autoloader you cannot use Commerce. The libraries we depend on will not be available, even if manually installed.

Composer also enables version constraints and prevents dependency conflicts. Without Composer there is no way to tell our users “make sure you also update this dependency as well.”

This also means less work for you.

How to install Composer

Composer offers a convenient installer that you can execute directly from the commandline. Follow instructions on Go Tour Mens QuickDry Slip On Water Shoe Leisure Outdoor Lightweight Walking Shoe Dark Grey 8iFPUb
. We recommend that you use the newest version of composer, as older versions may or may not work. Check that your version matches the version listed on Naot Womens Havana Mule Black Madras/Shadow Gray Nubuck wdafx

How to use it

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The file defines required libraries, modules, themes, and Drupal core to download. It allows you to run commands when Composer finishes an operation, and more.

Here is an example from the module.

This specifies the project as being a Drupal module available at with information about its license and homepage. It requires of any satisfiable version 2 release, and the development version of the library.


The file is auto generated by Composer. It has information about all the dependencies in the project, including ones your modules or themes depend on.

The lock file contains information on how to fetch the dependency and its dependency version constraints.

composer install

The command will download and install dependencies. The install command will install off of lock file. However, if no lock file is available it will act as the update command.

The command will regenerate the class autoloader.

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The command resolves dependencies and generates the file. The update command will update dependencies to their latest versions.

The command will regenerate the class autoloader.

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The command adds a new dependency to your project. This will update the and files and regenerate the class autoloader.

If the new dependency has any conflicts with other dependencies, such as incompatible shared dependencies, it will not install.

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The command removes a dependency from your project. This will update the and files and regenerate the class autoloader.

If the dependency is required by another package, it will not be removed.

Links and resources

Dependency management is not a new concept and not unique to PHP. NPM for NodeJS, Bower for front end libraries, Bundler/Gems for Ruby, PIP for Python, Maven for Java and so forth.

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IoT Training for Product Managers

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Feature prioritizationisone of the most importantjobs of a Product Manager. Yet it continues to be one of the most difficult and debated topics in the community. So let’s take away the confusion and start with the #1, most simple rule that should guide your feature prioritization.

Setting thepriority of features isone of the most important aspects of Product Management. All the work that we do–all that customer development, internal horse-trading, market research, etc.–culminates with a list of prioritized features for the development team to build.

And yet, if prioritizationis so important, why is it so difficult to do? Why is there so much confusion around it? Look atsome of the most popularProduct Management forums in LinkedIn or Quora, and you’ll see that how to create a roadmap and prioritize features continues to be a big issue for Product Managers.

In many cases,the struggle toprioritize features is just a symptom of something bigger. The real problem is usually lack of strategic vision or direction.

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When you prioritize features, ask yourself:

If you answeryes to any of the above questions, then your prioritization will not only be difficult, but it’ll be highly ineffective.

Your company’s strategy will inform your high-level roadmap, which tells you what type of functionality you need to build in the short- and mid-term, to satisfy your customers needs as well asother internal company needs.

If you don’t have a clear strategy and high-level roadmap that was crafted based on customer development, then there’s no point in trying to prioritize features yet. So before jumping into reorganizing individual features within your Product Managment tool (if you are lucky to have one), take a minute to revisityour overall strategy and long-term roadmap.

That’s not to say your strategy needs to be set in stone for all of eternity. Depending on the maturity of your company, it’s not rare for strategies to adjust or “pivot” (to use the Lean lingo) every so often based onnew learningsgathered via Customer Development. But you do need to have a defined strategy at all times, which remains mostly consistent, most of the time.

By the way, gettinghere is a lot of work, and that’s where a big part ofthe value of Product Managers lie. If you’d like some great resourceson developing and executing a customer-driven strategy,I highly recommend these books. They are aimed at startups, but the insights are equally applicable to established companies.

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